Ancient Boat Building
Brief history of ancient boat builders
ANCIENT BOAT BUILDING
Ancient boat building techniques were diverse and ingenious, reflecting the different geographical and cultural contexts of the civilizations that developed them. The categories of ancient boat building methods include such as hide, log, sewn, lashed-plank, clinker, reverse-clinker, shell-first, and frame-first. Hide boats were made by stretching animal skin or leather over frames of wood or bone. They were common in areas where wood was scarce, such as the Arctic and subarctic regions. Examples of hide boats include kayaks and umiaks used by the Inuit people, and coracles and currachs used by the Celtic people in Britain and Ireland. Hide boats were light, flexible, and easy to transport over land. They were also waterproof and resistant to freezing temperatures. Log boats were made by hollowing out a single piece of wood, usually a tree trunk. They were one of the earliest types of boats, dating back to around 8000 years ago. They were found in many parts of the world where large trees grew, such as Europe, Africa, America, and Polynesia. Log boats could be simple dugouts or elaborately decorated canoes. They could also be joined together to form larger rafts or catamarans. Log boats were durable and buoyant, but heavy and difficult to maneuver. Sewn and lashed-plank boats were made by fastening together planks of wood with rope or fiber. They were found in many coastal regions of the world, such as the Mediterranean, India, Southeast Asia, and Oceania. Sewn and lashed-plank boats could withstand the impact of waves and beaching better than nailed boats. They could also be easily repaired or disassembled when needed. Examples of sewn and lashed-plank boats include the papyrus boats of ancient Egypt, the dhows of Arabia and India, and the outrigger canoes of Polynesia. Clinker and reverse-clinker boats were made by fastening together overlapping planks of wood with nails or pegs. The clinker technique involved placing the planks from bottom to top, creating a convex hull. The reverse-clinker technique involved placing the planks from top to bottom, creating a concave hull. The clinker technique was developed in northern Europe by the Vikings and other seafaring peoples. The reverse-clinker technique was rare but prevalent in some parts of South Asia, such as Orissa in India. Clinker and reverse-clinker boats were strong and stable, but required more skill and materials to build. Shell-first and frame-first boats were made by constructing the hull first, then adding the internal framework. The shell-first technique involved bending planks of wood over a mold or a temporary frame to form the shape of the hull. The frame-first technique involved erecting a skeleton of ribs and keel first, then attaching planks to cover it. The shell-first technique was common in ancient Greece and Rome, as well as China and Japan. The frame-first technique was dominant in medieval Europe and later became the standard method for modern shipbuilding. Shell-first and frame-first boats were more complex and efficient than earlier methods, but also more costly and time consuming.
Some examples of ancient boats that used these techniques are:
- The Khufu boat: A shell-first boat made of cedar wood that was buried near the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt around 2500 BC. It was intended to serve as a solar barque or a funeral boat for the pharaoh Khufu.
- The Abydos boats: A group of 12 frame-first boats made of acacia wood that were buried near the royal tombs at Abydos in Egypt around 3000 BC. They were likely used for ceremonial purposes or for transporting goods along the Nile.
- The Mesopotamian reed boats: Shell-first boats made of bundles of reeds coated with bitumen that were used in Mesopotamia from at least 5500 BC. They were used for fishing, trade, and warfare along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and the Persian Gulf.
- The Viking longships: Clinker boats made of oak wood that were used by the Norsemen from around 700 AD to 1100 AD. They were fast, agile, and seaworthy vessels that enabled them to raid, trade, explore, and colonize across Europe and beyond.
- The Orissan boita: Reverse-clinker boats made of teak wood that were used by the people of Orissa in India from around 500 BC to 1500 AD. They were large, sturdy, and elegant ships that sailed to Southeast Asia, China, and Arabia for trade and cultural exchange.
Ancient boat building techniques were varied and innovative, reflecting the different needs and challenges of ancient seafarers. By studying these techniques, we can learn more about the history and culture of ancient civilizations, as well as their achievements and contributions to maritime technology.